Gratified by the response to the initial publica- tion of The Encyclopedia of World Religions, the editors have prepared a revised and much enhanced edition of. Britannica - Encyclopedia of World pettiremerhalf.ml - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Apr 1, , Jones Jonathan and others published Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions.
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Download the Book:Britannica Encyclopedia Of World Religions PDF For Free, Preface: Religious faith takes many forms. Throughout the centuries and around. events, transitions, and crises and respond in a healing, often life-saving way to the For those Encyclopedia o Encyclopedia of Demons in World Religions and . Encyclopedia of Women in World Religions Faith and Culture across History Susan deGaia, Editor 2 VOLUMES Across the span of human history, women have.
Vallabha Acharya. Lutheranism and Protestantism in general.
Gaudiya Vaishnavism , Achintya Bheda Abheda. Anglicanism Church of England. Swiss Brethren , Anabaptists. Tyrolean Bavarian. Calvinism . Michael Servetus . John Knox . Indian Mughal. John Smyth . Avvakum [ citation needed ]. Old Believers of Russian Orthodox Church. George Fox . Philipp Spener . Yisroel ben Eliezer "Baal Shem Tov" . Polish Ukrainian. Ann Lee . Swaminarayan Sampraday. Mormonism , also known as the Latter Day Saint movement. John Thomas.
Taiping Christianity. Seventh-day Adventist Church. Mary Baker Eddy . Ellen G. White . John Ballou Newbrough. Armanism Germanic mysticism. Charles Taze Russell . Bible Student movement. Paiute Native American. William Irvine . Two by Twos and Cooneyites. Tsunesaburo Makiguchi. International Peace Mission movement. Association for Research and Enlightenment. Reconstructionist Judaism. Russian Lithuanian.
Iglesia ni Cristo Church of Christ. Moorish Science Temple of America. American, possibly Cherokee or Moroccan. Aimee Semple McPherson . Foursquare Church. Mount Sinai Holy Church of America. Navayana Buddhism. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Dianetics and later Scientology. Juche . Chinmayananda Saraswati. Transcendental Meditation. World Mission Society Church of God.
Yong Sun Myung Moon . Unification Church. Sathya Sai Organization. Church of Satan LaVeyan Satanism. For more on internet safety, see Internet advice for adults.
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Make sure your speakers are switched on! For more about these programs, see Technical help. Back to the top. This expansion brought Christianity into direct contact and often contention with the world's other leading belief system, including Hinduism in India, Islam in the Middle East, and Confucianism and Daoism in China. This of course led to considerable regional repercussions, as existing religio-cultural traditions struggled to adopt their worldviews to the presence of these interlopers.
Some examples of these responses include the Boxer Rebellion in China, the First War of Indian Independence , and the development of the Ghost Dance religion among indigenous North Americans — each of which, to a greater or lesser extent, was informed by both religious and political tensions. In the twentieth century, the role of religion in public life became an increasingly contentious issue.
The Communist regimes of Eastern Europe and China were explicitly anti-religious, with Western Europe and America at least among intellectual elites becoming increasing secularized. At the same time, Christianity and Islam continued to spread at ever-increasing rates throughout the developing world. While many of these modern religious movements have stressed compassion and social justice, other fundamentalist strands which have developed in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism have sought to use religious teachings to establish ideological world-views and forward conservative political agendas.
Over and above these developments, a great variety of cults and new religious movements originated in the 20th century, many proposing syncretism of elements of established religions.
Religious traditions fall into super-groups in comparative religion, arranged by historical origin and mutual influence. Another group with supra-regional influence are African diasporic religions, which have their origins in Central and West Africa. Groups estimated to exceed , adherents which are not listed under any of the categories above are the following: Religious belief usually relates to the existence, nature and worship of a deity or deities, and to faith in divine involvement in the universe and human life.
Alternately, it may also relate to values and practices transmitted by a spiritual leader. Unlike other belief systems, which may be passed on orally, religious belief tends to be codified in literate societies whereas religion in non-literate societies is still largely passed on orally. Religion and philosophy meet in several areas, notably in the study of metaphysics and cosmology. In particular, a distinct set of religious beliefs will often entail a specific metaphysics and cosmology.
That is, a religion will generally have answers to metaphysical and cosmological questions about the nature of being, of the universe, humanity, and the divine. Given the generalized discontents with modernity, consumerism, over-consumption, violence and anomie , many people in the so-called industrial or post-industrial West rely on a number of distinctive religious world views Zeitgeist.
This, in turn, has given rise to increased religious pluralism, as well as to what are commonly known in the academic literature as new religious movements, which are gaining adherents around the globe. Some individuals draw a strong distinction between religion and spirituality.
They may see spirituality as a belief in ideas of religious significance such as God, the Soul, or Heaven , but not feel bound to the bureaucratic structure and creeds of a particular organized religion.
In this context, the term spirituality is often consciously chosen in opposition to the designation "religion," perhaps reflecting a disillusionment with organized religion and a movement towards more "modern" i. These individuals may reject organized religion because of historical acts by religious organizations, such as Christian Crusades , the Islamic Jihad , the Spanish Inquisition , and the marginalisation and persecution of various minorities.
This being said, many adherents of the "World Religions" do not demarcate between religion and spirituality, as they interpret their tradition as providing access to the spiritual realm. Mysticism, in contrast with philosophy, denies that logic is the most important method of gaining enlightenment. From a religious standpoint, mysticism it thought of as religious practice meant enable communion with or conscious awareness of Ultimate Reality, the Divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct, personal experience intuition or insight rather than rational ideation.
Mystics speak of the existence of realities beyond sensory perception or intellectual apprehension that are directly accessible through personal experience, arguing that these experiences are genuine and important sources of knowledge.
Many religious traditions have mystical elements, though these strands are often marginalized due to their counter-hegemonic nature in denying the necessity of mediation between the individual and the divine. In a related manner, esotericism claims to be more sophisticated than religion, to rely on intellectual understanding rather than faith, and to improve on philosophy in its emphasis on techniques of psycho-spiritual transformation esoteric cosmology.
Esotericism refers to "hidden" knowledge available only to the advanced, privileged, or initiated, as opposed to exoteric knowledge, which is public. It applies especially to spiritual practices. The mystery religions of ancient Greece , the Gnostic systems of the Middle East, and the Hindu path of jnana marga are examples of esoteric religiosity.
Some mystical doctrines, such as the Jewish Kabbala , are also esoteric. Ancient polytheistic religions, such as those of Greece , Rome, and Scandinavia , are usually categorized under the heading of mythology. Religions of pre-industrial peoples, or cultures in development, are similarly called "myths" in the anthropology of religion. The term " myth " can be used pejoratively by both religious and non-religious people.
By defining another person's religious stories and beliefs as mythology, one implies that they are less real or true than one's own religious stories and beliefs.
Joseph Campbell remarked,. In sociology , however, the term myth has a non-pejorative meaning. There, myth is defined as a story that is important for the group whether or not it is objectively or provably true. Examples include the death and resurrection of Jesus , which, to Christians, explains the means by which they are freed from sin and is also ostensibly a historical event.
But from a mythological outlook, whether or not the event actually occurred is unimportant. Instead, the symbolism of the death of an old "life" and the start of a new "life" is what is most significant.
Humans have many different methods which attempt to answer fundamental questions about the nature of the universe and our place in it cosmology. Religion is only one of the methods for trying to answer one or more of these questions. Other methods include science, philosophy , metaphysics , astrology , esotericism , mysticism, and forms of shamanism. Some religions view such knowledge as unlimited in scope and suitable to answer any question; others see religious knowledge as playing a more restricted role, often as a complement to knowledge gained through physical observation.
Some religious people maintain that religious knowledge obtained in this way is absolute and infallible, usually due to a fundamentalist certainty in the inerrancy of their scriptures. In contrast to the intuitive process of knowing advocated by many religious groups, the scientific method states that knowledge must be gained by using empirical facts to test hypotheses and develop theories.
It develops theories of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is probabilistic and subject to later improvement or revision in the face of better evidence.
Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as facts such as the theories of gravity or evolution.